Lievens, F., Sackett, P. R., Dahlke, J. A., Oostrom, J. K., & De Soete, B. (2018). Constructed response formats and their effects on minority–majority differences and validity. Journal of Applied Psychology.
Researchers compared the minority-majority differences in performance between different response formats of SJTs. Based on two field experiments, the first study (n = 274) showed that written constructed responses produce much smaller minority-majority differences than traditional multiple choice formats (d = .28 vs. d = .92). The audiovisual format further reduced minority-majority differences (d = .09 vs. d = .41), with validities remaining the same. Scores of raters evaluating transcribed audiovisual responses, which anonymized test-takers, produced larger differences. In sum, altering response modality via more realistic response formats (i.e., audiovisual constructed format) lead to significant reductions in minority-majority differences without impairing criterion-related validity.