Papadakis, M. A., Teherani, A., Banach, M. A., Knettler, T. R., Rattner, S. L., Stern, D. T., … & Hodgson, C. S. (2005). Disciplinary action by medical boards and prior behavior in medical school. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(25), 2673-2682.
Of the 740 violations among 235 physicians that led to disciplinary action on the part of 40 medical state boards, unprofessional behavior was the basis for 74% of the violations. For 94% of those who were disciplined, one or more violations involved unprofessional behavior. Unprofessional behavior as a student was by far the strongest predictor of disciplinary action above and beyond undergraduate MCAT scores and grades in first 2 years of medical school.